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Helping at home

We will value and share any research that your child carries out at home linked to our topics. The staff at Crosby Library are very welcoming and will happily order in topic related books to support.

English

Handwriting: 

Practise letter formation and joins. It is important that capital letters are clearly distinguishable.

All of our lower case letters start at the bottom. 

We teach all of the letters that start with the curly 'c' shape first (c, a, d, g, o, q).

We teach all of the letters that begin with the 'l' shape together (l, b, h, k, t).

We talk about our 'down letters' having their chin on the line and their tail underneath (g, j, p, q, y).

The image above helps children remember which letters are ascenders and which are descenders. Ascenders go up into the blue sky, descenders go down into the soil, half way letters stay in the green grass. 

Children can practise the letter shapes using pens, pencils, crayons, paint...

Writing: 

Try to give children as many real life opportunities to write as possible (letters, shopping lists, diaries, instructions, invitations, labels). 

Encourage children to include full stops, capital letters, exclamation marks, question marks and apostrophes when writing. Encourage children to use inverted commas (speech marks), question marks, exclamation marks and commas for lists.

Encourage children to use their phonics to spell unknown words. We find that using a robot voice to segment words helps. 

Children should think about a sentence, say it, write it and then read it back to check it. 

Spelling, Grammar and Punctuation:

This year, children will be sitting a SPAG (spelling, grammar and punctuation) test. 

 

These words are classed as common exception words because (depending on dialect) sounding them out using phonics won't work. 

 

Year One Common Exception Words

the

a

do

to

today

of

said

says

are

were

was

is

his

has

I

you

your

they

be

he

me

she

we

no

go

so

by

my

here

there

where

love

come

some

one

once

ask

friend

school

put

push

full

house

our

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Year Two

door

floor

poor

because

find

kind

mind

behind

child

wild

climb

most

only

both

old

cold

gold

hold

told

every

everybody

even

great

break

steak

pretty

beautiful

after

fast

last

past

father

class

grass

pass

plant

path

bath

hour

move

prove

sure

sugar

eye

could

would

should

who

whole

any

many

clothes

busy

people

water

again

half

money

Mr

Mrs

parents

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

For some of these words, children can't rely on their phonics, they will need to use different strategies to learn how to read and write them.

It helps to practise similar words together (door, floor, poor).

Sometimes, mnemonics can be helpful, because (big elephants can always understand small elephants).

For some of the words, it helps to sound them out as they are spelt (h-a-l-f).

Children can write words and use highlighters to show silent letters (climb)

A good way to teach the words could, would and should, is to learn the mnemonic - 'O U Little Devil' for the sting 'ould'. 

Handwriting practice is also a good strategy for practising spellings. 

Children can practise writing the words in their own sentences. 

 

Please help your child to learn how to spell the following homophones:

there/their/they’re, here/hear, quite/quiet, see/sea,

bare/bear, one/won, sun/son, to/too/two, be/bee,

blue/blew, night/knight

To learn these spellings, children will need to use the words in context. 

 

Spelling lists will also include words with common suffixes (ly - happily, ful - helpful).

 

Children will bring home weekly spellings to learn, for some, they will be able to apply their phonics, for others they will need to learn them by the way they look and by using some of the tricks above. It will help to revisit spellings from previous lists and to practise all of the spellings above regularly. 

 

Children will be taught to use apostrophes to spell contractions (did + not = didn't, I + will = I'll).

They will also be taught to use apostrophes to show possession (Tom's coat, the cat's bowl).

Please support your child to use apostrophes when writing at home.

 

Children are also expected to use full stops, question marks, exclamation marks and commas for lists when writing. It is good practice to encourage your child to read their own sentences back and to check that their punctuation is correct. 

 

Children will be taught about statements (It is cold.), commands (Put your coat on.), exclamations (What a beautiful day it is!) and questions (what time is it?). Each day in class, teachers display an image for children to chat about. They are then asked to write and punctuate different types of sentences. Have a go at this at home. 

 

Children will be expected to identify different types of words within sentences:

nouns, adverbs, adjectives (The huge man angrily shouted.)

They will be expected to recognise past tense verbs: 

I will run to school.

The boy ran to school. 

 

Reading: 

Children should read a little at home every night. It is good to start with a chat about the book. Looking at the front cover, encourage your child to tell you what they think the book will be about. Ask about any similar books they have read and link the topic to their personal experiences. Next, allow your child time to look through the book, look at illustrations and chat about what they can see. 

When reading, encourage your child to use picture clues. Encourage them to sound unknown words out. 

If they are stuck on a word and can't decode it, tell them the word and encourage them to reread the sentence. 

Ask lots of questions and discuss how characters might be feeling. Encourage your child to describe different characters and setting. 

After reading, you could role play and retell the main events. Ask your child to draw their favourite part of the story and write a sentence. It is good to reread books to build confidence and fluency. It is good to listen to your child read and for them to listen to you. You can consolidate their learning about spelling, grammar and punctuation through their reading. 

Pace and fluency are extremely important. Our aim is that children children can read 90 words per minute by the end of Year 2. When striving for this, once your child has read about 90 words, ask them to go back and reread using the normal speaking voice/speed. 

Phonics

During Year 2, most children will consolidate Phase 5: 

Jargon Buster (sorry!):

Phoneme - smallest unit of sound

Grapheme - how a sound is recorded

Diagraph - 2 letters that make 1 sound

Trigraph - 3 letters that make 1 sound

Split diagraph - when an 'e' is used to make a long vowel sound

CVC words - (consonant vowel consonant) 

Blending - blending sounds to read words

Segmenting - segment words to spell

 

Some Examples: 

CAT has 3 phonemes - C-A-T

SHOP has 3 phonemes - SH-O-P

FAIR has 3 phonemes - F-AIR

CAT, BAG, LIP are CVC words

aiaya-e are all graphemes (ways of recording) for the same phoneme (sound) 

SH in shop is a diagraph (2 letters making 1 sound)

AIR in fair is a trigraph (3 letters making 1 sound)

I-E in slide is a split daigraph (the 'e' changing the word from slid to slide) 

 

Phase 1 (usually secured pre-school)

Phase One of Letters and Sounds concentrates on developing children's speaking and listening skills and lays the foundations for the phonic work which starts in Phase 2. The emphasis during Phase 1 is to get children attuned to the sounds around them and ready to begin developing oral blending and segmenting skills.

Phase 1 is divided into seven aspects. Each aspect contains three strands: Tuning in to sounds (auditory discrimination), Listening and remembering sounds (auditory memory and sequencing) and Talking about sounds (developing vocabulary and language comprehension).

 

Phase 2 (usually secured during Reception)

In Phase 2, letters and their sounds are introduced one at a time. A set of letters is taught each week, in the following sequence:

Set 1: s, a, t, p
Set 2: i, n, m, d
Set 3: g, o, c, k
Set 4: ck, e, u, r
Set 5: h, b, f, ff, l, ll, ss

The children will begin to learn to blend and segment to begin reading and spelling.  This will begin with simple words.

Words using set 1

at

sat

pat

tap

sap

 

Words using set 1 and 2

(+i)

(+n)

(+m)

(+d)

it

an

am

dad

is

in

man

sad

sit

nip

mat

dim

sat

pan

map

din

pit

pin

Pam

did

pip

tan

Tim

Sid

sip

nap

Sam

and

tip

tin

 

dip

Words using sets 1-3

(+g)

(+o)

(+c)

(+k)

tag

got

can

kid

gag

on

cot

kit

gig

not

cop

Kim

gap

pot

cap

Ken

nag

top

cat

 

sag

dog

cod

 

gas

pop

 

 

pig

God

 

 

dig

Mog

 

 

 

 

Words using set 1-4

(+ck)

(+e)

(+u)

(+r)

kick

get

up

rim

sock

pet

mum

rip

sack

ten

run

ram

dock

net

mug

rat

pick

pen

cup

rag

sick

peg

sun

rug

pack

met

tuck

rot

ticket

men

mud

rocket

pocket

neck

sunset

carrot

Words using set 1-5

(+h)

(+b)

(+f and ff)

(+l and ll)

(+ss)

had

but

of

lap

ass

him

big

if

let

less

his

back

off

leg

hiss

hot

bet

fit

lot

mass

hut

bad

fin

lit

mess

hop

bag

fun

bell

boss

hum

bed

fig

fill

fuss

hit

bud

fog

doll

hiss

hat

beg

puff

tell

pass

has

bug

huff

sell

kiss

hack

bun

cuff

Bill

Tess

hug

bus

fan

Nell

fusspot

 

Ben

fat

dull

 

 

bat

 

laptop

 

 

bit

 

 

 

 

bucket

 

 

 

 

beckon

 

 

 

 

rabbit

 

 

 

Alongside this children are introduced to tricky/exception words.  These are the words that are irregular words.  That means that phonics cannot be applied to the reading and spelling of these words.

 

The tricky words introduced in phase 2 are:

to

the

no

go

I

 

Useful websites for phase 2:

http://www.letters-and-sounds.com/phase-2.html

 

Phase 3 (usually secure in Reception/Year 1)

 

By the time they reach Phase 3, children will already be able to blend and segment words containing the 19 letters taught in Phase 2.

Over the twelve weeks which Phase 3 is expected to last, twenty-five new graphemes are introduced (one at a time).

Set 6: j, v, w, x

Set 7: y, z, zz, qu

Consonant digraphs: ch, sh, th, ng

Vowel digraphs: ai, ee, igh, oa, oo, ar, or, ur, ow, oi, ear, air, ure, er

Tricky words:

we

me

be

was

no

go  

my

you

they

her

all

are

 

Phase 4 (usually secured in Year 1)

By Phase 4 children will be able to represent each phoneme.  They will blend phonemes to read CVC words and segment CVC words for spelling.  They will also be able to read two syllable words that are simple.  They will be able to read all the tricky words learnt so far and will be able to spell some of them.

This phase consolidates all the children have learnt in the previous phases.

Tricky words:

said

so

she

he

have

like  

some

come

were

there

little

one

they

all

are

do

when

out

what

my

her

 

 

 

 

By this point children would be expected to be reading CVC words at speed along with the tricky words from the previous phases.  It is important that children are taught that blending is only used when a word is unfamiliar.

 

Phase 5 (for most children - taught in Year 1/consolidated in Year 2)

 

Children will be taught different ways of representing the phonemes. 

 

Tricky words:

oh

their

people

Mr

Mrs

looked

called

asked

 

 

 

 

water

where

who

again

thought

through

work

mouse

many

laughed

because

different

any

eyes

friends

once

please

 

New graphemes for reading:

 

 

 

Split diagraphs:

ay day

oy boy

wh when

a-e make

ou out

ir  girl

ph photo

e-e these

ie tie

ue  blue

ew new

i-e like

ea eat

aw saw

oe  toe

o-e home

 

 

au  Paul

u-e rule

By this phase children should be reading words fluently and no longer be blending and segmenting familiar words.

Phase 6 (Year 2)

In phase 6 children will be reading longer and less familiar texts independently and fluently.  It is crucial that at this point children are now reading to learn and reading for pleasure.

Children should be able to read the 300 high frequency words.  At this point it is important that comprehension strategies are developed so that children clarify meaning, ask and answer questions about the texts they are reading, construct mental images during reading and summarise what they have read.

In spelling children are introduced to the adding of suffixes and how to spell longer words.  Throughout the phase children are encouraged to develop strategies for learning spellings.

Maths

 

Mathletics is a fun site for your child to practice their skills. Find the link below. We will sometimes set homework on this site (a paper task will be available for children who do not have Internet access at home). 

 

Please support your child to practise their multiplication facts; fluency when counting in 2s, 5s, 10s and 3s will really help them in lessons. Drawing arrays can be helpful way for children to visualise what multiplication is. 

This will also help children to recognise that multiplication can be carried out in any order (5 X 3 or 3 X 5).

 

Help your child to add a single digit number to a two digit number mentally by holding the largest number in their head and counting on using fingers. 

 

Counting on in 10s from any number is an extremely important skill. A 100 square can be useful when beginning to do this. 

 

 

There is a web link below to use this 100 square interactively to find 10 more/10 less and to count on and back in 10s from different starting points. 

Once your child is confident with this, they can use the number line method to add and subtract 2 digit numbers. 

 

 

 

When practising maths skills at home, create real life word problems and help your child to decide which method to use. 

Make maths an integral part of everyday life with your child; involve them when measuring, shopping, telling the time. 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Computing

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